Pain is a subjective experience that affects all segments of the population. However, there are inter-individual differences in pain. The biopsychosocial model proposes that the intersection of biological, psychological, and social factors create a pain experience and pain outcomes that differ by sex, race, and socioeconomic status.

“The minority stress theory … the idea that for racial minorities, especially blacks, they are exposed to chronic stress; the stress of daily racism”

Could epigenetics hold the key to understanding how social factors compound differences between patients? How does this impact on you and your practice?

Further reading is to be found here:

Presented by Desiree Chappell and Monty Mythen with Edwin N. Aroke, Ph.D., CRNA, Assistant Professor, Associate Scientist, Minority Health and Health Disparities Research Center, Associate Scientist, Comprehensive Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, Bone, & Autoimmunity Center, The University of Alabama, Birmingham, US.